My telescope is generally referred to as a black tube C8 by people in the know. But let's work on that a bit.
The "C8" is actually two pieces of information. "C" is short for "Celestron". They're a popular brand of commercial telescope makers (Meade is the other major one). The 8 refers to the diameter of the primary mirror. While Celestron makes several types of telescopes, their traditional ones have been what are known as Schmidt-Cassegrains. These are a type of reflecting telescopes. The other major type is a Newtonian telescope.
With any reflecting telescope, light is collected by the primary mirror located at the rear of the tube. It then has a focal point somewhere in front of the mirror. In principle, you could stick your head there and see the image directly, but the problem is that you would then have your head in the way of the stars. Thus, a secondary mirror is used to bounce the light (and the focal point) to somewhere outside the tube where it can be observed.
In Newtonian telescopes, the secondary mirror is at a 45° angle which bounces the light out the side of the tube to the eyepiece. In Schmidt-Cassegrains, the mirror is parallel to the main mirror and thus bounces it straight back. It would be trapped were it not for a hole drilled in the center of the main mirror which is where the eyepiece is placed. The total distance the light travels from the mirror to the focal point is 2,000 mm which is important for determining the magnification.
So what's with the "black tube"? Celestron is an old company. When they first started out, the tubes for their C8s were painted a totally 70's burnt orange. At some point, they realized it was totally out of style and started producing ones with black tubes. Stating this is a quick way of identifying that it's one of their newer models, produced after 1980.
Strictly speaking, this design as stated is only a Schmidt telescope. The Cassegrain comes from a modification on this design. Because different wavelengths (colors) of light reflect at slightly different wavelengths, this can cause a distortion of the colors around the edges of objects; a psychadelic rainbow effect known as chromatic abberation. This is obviously less than ideal, so to correct the problem, a thin lens was added to the front of the telescope.
The last bit of relevant information is that the entire thing rests on an equitorial mount. This allows it to be aligned to the celestial equator and follow a RA/Dec coordinate system (as opposed to Alt/Az). Therefore, I can track stars more simply.